Camera Lens Theory

How does the lens magnification and depth of field calculator work? Here is the theory behind it.

  1. Introduction
    1. Basic assumption
  2. Lens Equation
    1. Focusing distance
  3. Aperture
    1. F-stop
    2. Lens speed
    3. Standard stop scales
  4. Magnification
    1. Minimum focusing distance
    2. Approximation
    3. Notation
  5. Extension Tubes
    1. Focusing distance and image distance
    2. Extending the image distance
    3. Effective focusing distance
  6. Depth of Field
    1. Slightly out of focus
    2. Minimum acceptable sharpness
    3. Near and far limits
    4. Depth of field vs. aperture
    5. Depth of field vs. magnification
  7. Hyperfocal Distance
    1. Approximation
    2. Near limit
    3. Practical considerations
  8. Infinity Focus
    1. Merklinger's approach
    2. Practical considerations
    3. Hyperfocal distance revisited
  9. Accuracy
    1. Magnification
    2. Depth of field
  10. References